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IC timer 555

 

 IC timer 555

The 555 timer has been one of the popular microcircuits in the electronics world for more than 50 years. The microcircuit allows you to form a single pulse or a series of repetitive pulses with stable time characteristics.

Based on the 555 timer, you can create the most unusual devices with your own hands, ranging from the simplest one that controls the blinking of a light bulb to a multi-stage security alarm. And all this without a microcontroller and programming.

Where is the 555 timer chip used?

The microcircuit allows you to assemble light and sound alarms, an illumination meter, a voltage converter, a combination lock and other useful devices with your own hands. To get started, we recommend using our lessons with the 555 timer .

Photo Application of microcircuit Timer 555

Want to try building 555 devices, but don't know where to start? Pay attention to our electronic designer Omka , in which the 555 microcircuit is one of the key components.

History of creation

The 555 timer begins its history in 1971, when the Signetics Corporation released the NE555 chip called the Integral Timer.

Photo Integral Timer

Initially, the microcircuit was produced in two types of cases: plastic and round metal. Now on sale microcircuits in a metal case no longer exist - there are only plastic ones.

The 555 timer became a unique "timer" microcircuit available to ordinary consumers, which made it possible to assemble miniature and inexpensive devices due to the dense arrangement of elements in the microcircuit crystal. Subsequently, other manufacturers from around the world began to copy it: Texas Instruments , STMicroelectronics , Diodes Inc and others. In the USSR, they released their own version of the timer - KR1006VI1 .


 What does a microcircuit consist of?

Inside the crystal, the microcircuit contains about 20 transistors, 15 resistors, 2 diodes. The composition and number of elements may vary slightly depending on the manufacturer.

Photo Chip Timer 555 inside - what it consists of

The principle of operation of the timer 555 chip

Conventionally, the NE555 microcircuit consists of six functional blocks:

  • voltage divider (1);
  • two comparators (2 and 3);
  • RS flip-flop (4);
  • inverting power amplifier (5);
  • open collector transistor at the output (6).

Photo The principle of operation of the timer 555 chip

A resistive voltage divider (1) is located at the input, which forms two reference voltages for the comparators (2 and 3). The output contacts of the comparators are fed to an RS flip-flop (4) with an external output for reset, and then to a power amplifier (5). The last node is an open collector transistor (6), which can perform several functions, depending on the task at hand.

Chip marking and designation

The NE555 microcircuit and its analogs are available in an eight-pin DIP-8, TSSOP or SOIC package. The pin layout is standard regardless of the case.

Photo Marking chips Timer 555

Connection diagrams Timer 555

The 555 timer supports three main modes of operation:

  • monostable mode (one-shot);
  • self-oscillating mode (multivibrator);
  • bistable mode (Schmitt trigger).

To calculate the timing of the timer, it is necessary to perform the mathematical calculations of the RC-chain. We advise you to use the 555 program (in the Documents folder), which will calculate the denomination of all components for you.

skhema podklyucheniya - Integrated circuit timer 555 photo

Monostable mode (one shot)

monostabilnyj rezhim odnovibrator - Integrated circuit timer 555 photo

The mode is suitable for turning on the timer for a fixed time interval. For example, turning on the light for a specified time interval when a motion sensor is triggered.

The stable state of the timer is off, i.e. there is a logical zero on the "OUT" leg. By an arbitrary signal at the TRIG input, the microcircuit generates a single rectangular pulse (logical unit) at the OUT output. The pulse duration is determined by an external RC-chain of one capacitor and a resistor according to the formula:

T = 1.1 * R * C, where:

LetterDescriptionMeasurement scale
TPulse timeSecond
RResistance ratingOhm
WITHCapacity ratingFarad

T is the pulse time in seconds;
R - resistance in Ohms;
C is the capacity in Farads.

Example of work

Let's consider a monostable mode using a simple example. Connect LED1 to the OUT output through the current-limiting resistor R2. And to start the timer, connect the SW1 clock button to the "TRIG" pin

Given:
R1 = 10 kΩ = 10000 Ω.
C1 = 220 μF = 220 * 0.000001 F = 0.00022 F.

Solution:
T = 1.1 * 10000 * 0.00022 = 2.2 seconds.

Algorithm

  • In normal mode, the LED1 LED is off.
  • When you click on the SW1 button, the signal on the "TRIG" pin starts the timer, a logical unit appears at the "OUT" output and, accordingly, the LED1 LED lights up.
  • After 2.2 seconds, the timer turns off and the LED1 LED goes out, waiting for the next click on the SW1 button.

skhema podklyucheniya video - Integrated circuit timer 555 photo

Self-oscillating mode (multivibrator)

avtokolebatelnyj rezhim multivibrator - Integrated circuit timer 555 photo

The multivibrator mode allows you to blink LEDs, control the speed of motors and generate sounds. The microcircuit produces a sequence of rectangular pulses at the "OUT" output, the parameters of which are determined by the RC chain of capacitor C1 and two resistors R1 and R2.

  • f = 1 / 0.693 * C * (R1 + 2 * R2)
  • t = 1 / f
  • t = t1 + t2
  • t1 = 0.693 * C * (R1 + R2)
  • t2 = 0.693 * C * R2, where:
LetterDescriptionMeasurement scale
fPulse frequencyHertz
tPulse periodsecond
t1Pulse length (logical unit)second
t2Pause length (logical zero)second
R1, R2Resistance ratingOhm
WITHCapacity ratingFarad

Example of work

Let us consider the self-oscillating mode using an example. Connect LED1 to the OUT output through the current-limiting resistor R3.

Given:
R1 = 10 kΩ = 10,000 Ω
R2 = 100 kΩ = 100,000 Ω
C1 = 22 μF = 0.000022 F

Solution:

  • Pulse frequency: f = 1 / 0.693 * C1 * (R1 + 2 * R2) = 0.693 * 0.000022 * (10000 + 2 * 100000) = 1 / 3.2 = 0.31 Hertz.
  • Pulse period: t = 1 / f = 1 / 0.31 = 3.2 seconds.
  • Pulse duration (logical unit): t1 = 0.693 * C1 * (R1 + R2) = 0.693 * 0.000022 * (10000 + 100000) = 1.67 seconds.
  • Pause length (logical zero): t2 = 0.693 * C1 * R2 = 0.693 * 0.000022 * 100000 = 1.52 seconds.

Algorithm

The LED with the current values ​​of the RC-chain will light up for 1.67 seconds, go out for 1.52 seconds, and so on in a circle. The LED blinking frequency is 0.31 Hz and the period is 3.2 seconds.

bistabilnyj rezhim trigger shmitta video 1 - Integrated circuit timer 555 photo

Bistable mode (Schmitt trigger)

bistabilnyj rezhim trigger shmitta - Integrated circuit timer 555 photo

The latter is the bistable mode or Schmitt trigger. The mode is suitable for simply turning on and off devices by clicking on the buttons. There are no time slots in it, i.e. No RC chain needed.

Example of work

Let us consider the bistable mode using an example. Connect LED1 to the OUT output through the current-limiting resistor R3. And to control the light bulb, connect two buttons SW1 and SW2 to the "TRIG" and "RESET" pins.

Algorithm

  • In normal mode, the LED1 LED is off.
  • When you click on the SW1 button, the signal on the "TRIG" pin starts the timer, a logical unit appears at the "OUT" output and the LED1 LED lights up.
  • When you click on the SW2 button, the "RESET" signal resets the timer, a logical zero appears at the "OUT" output and, accordingly, the LED1 LED goes out.

bistabilnyj rezhim na primere video - Integrated circuit timer 555 photo

Specifications:

  • Model: integral timer 555
  • Supply voltage: 4.5 - 16 V
  • Maximum current consumption: up to 12 mA
  • Maximum output current: up to 200 mA
  • Maximum operating frequency: up to 500 kHz
  • Package: DIP-8, SOP-8
  • Working temperature: 0 to 70 ° C
  • Storage temperature: −65 to 150 ° C

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